Annotated Bibliography


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Why these selection choices?

This annotated bibliography has stemmed from my expert search strategies using Google, Google Scholar, A+Education and ProQuest Education. During my search the use of the information search process was in constant action. Strategies such as scanning key words and subject headings enabled me to select some readings over others. During this process the natural use of the CARS checklist model ensured credibility, accuracy, reasonableness and support.  Rheingold (2010) says that we now need to go beyond skills and must question information properly in order to be able to decipher quality information and be able to look below the surface. These  articles were selected because of their relevance to my Inquiry Learning Activity, they were academic in nature and helped answer some of my initial questions about Guided Inquiry.

Colburn, A. (2000). “An inquiry primer”. Science scope (Washington, D.C.) , 23 (6), p. 42.

Colburn states that inquiry based instruction is central to science education and questions why teachers are hesitant to use this model in the classroom. He addresses some of these reasons such as confusion, inquiry being for the gifted student, teacher preparation and inquiry being difficult to manage. These were all questions that I had asked myself when embarking on this unit and therefore made for interesting reading and will be  required for this task. Colburn defines inquiry as a teaching tool and explains structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry and the learning cycle.  He discusses that supportive teachers are what makes an inquiry based classroom successful and lists some strategies that will be useful in my ILA. This was a very useful article with practical teaching tips that can be utilised.

FitzGerald, L. (2011). The twin purposes of Guided Inquiry: guiding student inquiry and evidence based practice. Retrieved from:

This article refers to a project led by Dr Ross Todd where data was collected using the SLIM toolkit. Similarities with my research make this article interesting to read and compare it against. Fitzgerald writes about the impact that Guided Inquiry had on learning and the success using the Information Search Process (I.S.P.). Refering to the Kuhlthau (2005) Model of the I.S.P gives this article credibility. The way he follows how the students felt during the Guided Inquiry process will be useful for my assignment task. These detailed descriptions of feelings and the clear manner in which the data is presented will be a good guide for me during this unit. This could be a contrast of experiences.

Green, G. (2012). Inquiry and learning : what can IB show us about inquiry? [online]. Access; v.26 n.2 p.19-21; June 2012. Availability: <;dn=193381;res=AEIPT&gt; ISSN: 1030-0155. [cited 28 Aug 13].

Gary Green worked on embedding and developing thinking skills into school based programs. He deposits that Inquiry Learning is important and recognises that it is the hardest role requiring many and varied skill sets to be employed simultaneously. Importantly this article identifies that many schools utilise Inquiry Learning models and that inquiry is actually much more than that. Reference is made to three types of inquiry;

  1. Personal – authentic, where questions can be posed and problems shared
  2. Collaborative – where there is follow up in an experimental way
  3. Guided – a supervisory role

Importantly a difference is made to collaborative inquiry and Guided Inquiry. Green defines collaborative inquiry as a time where student and teacher work freely. On the other hand Guided Inquiry is when the teacher sets a problem and students respond in a structured manner. He argues that there is a prevalence of Guided Inquiry and that we need to offer more student flexibility and authenticity when investigating. The interdisciplinary approach has a constructivist approach and is where development of deeper conceptual understanding occurs. This source is reliable as it is recent and I recognise the publication’s title and consider it to be credible. This will be useful for my assignment.

This article lists pedagogical underpinnings of inquiry-based learning that are pertinent to my ILA to include;

  • Immersion through prior knowledge and context
  • Prior knowledge and brainstorming
  • Model sand inquiry

Hunsburger, W. F. (2008). Inquiry learning: A narrative inquiry into the experiences of three teachers. (Order No. NR39806, University of Toronto (Canada)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 256-n/a. Retrieved from (304339271).

This article was found on ProQuest when I accidentally used double parenthesis at the end of the expert search string. There were four results that all looked interesting. However, due to the time frame I am working under I will not be able to synthesis this 256 page document. As this article is a narrative it would be very descriptive and perhaps something to consider after completing the stage one blog. This will not be useful for the assignment task at this stage.

Kuhlthau, C. C., & Maniotes, L. K. (2010). Building guided inquiry teams for 21st-century learners. School Library Monthly, 26(5), 18-21. Retrieved from

This article helps answer some of my initial inquiry learning questions and explicitly explains the Guided Inquiry process and the role of the Information Search Process (ISP) asserting that “learning through research is more than simply collecting information” (2010, p. 18). The six ISP stages are described as is the constructivist environment where the instructional team will be observing, ready to support learners. This article will be utilsed as it explains the interwoven nature of learning and my ILA is also interwoven across year levels. There is reference to the way core and extended teams can work together in order to achieve higher learning. In particular reference will be made to these differing roles and how important it is for the team to collaborate in order to support the getting of wisdom. This source offers credibility as I know the authors and brings with it added levels of accuracy and reliability.

McLean, Ian. (2011).Taking the plunge : guided inquiry, persuasion and the research river at Penrith Public School. [online]. Scan; v.30 n.4 p.26-35; November 2011. Availability: <;dn=189318;res=AEIPT&gt; ISSN: 0726-4127. [cited 28 Aug 13].

These findings stem from a guided inquiry collaboration journey where McLean questioned the effectiveness of Guided Inquiry to enable students to create original information products that would persuade an audience. He uses Kuhlthau’s Model for the information search process as a framework and the SLIM toolkit to collect data. These are important similarities to my work and will therefore be relevant to my assignment task. Reference is also made to Dr Ross Todd who famously says “Just do it!” when launching into inquiry. The use of a variety of Web 2 tools was evident and ideas for how to begin an inquiry unit are included and again offer support to my task. The process of data collection and graphing are of great interest as too are the implications discussed in this article. McLean discusses the effects on student use of Web 2 tools, effects on home and school interaction and the consequences for teaching and learning. This is an article from a reputable and reliable source and will be a useful reference point.

Pellegrino, D. (2008). Guided inquiry: Learning in the 21st century. Choice, 45(8), 1389. Retrieved from

This article gave a very short 250 word explanation on Guided Inquiry. It was too short despite meeting all search terms in one of my very first Google searches. This demonstrates that I needed to add subjects to the initial basic search in order to make it an expert search strategy. This article was book marked early on and demonstrates the need to select and explore concurrently during the Information Search Process. This is not a useful resource and will not be included in my assignment task.

Purnell, Ken and Harrison, Allan.(2011). Inquiry in geography and science : can it work? [online]. Geographical Education; v.24 p.34-40; 2011. Availability: <;dn=191137;res=AEIPT&gt; ISSN: 0085-0969. [cited 28 Aug 13].

This paper argues that teacher-informed professionalism is critical in an inquiry in order to develop student knowledge and skills in these above mentioned subject areas. Purnell and Harrison comment about teaching and thinking in Geography and Science being different to the teaching and thinking about these subjects. This links with their argument that guided inquiry needs to be used effectively to develop student knowledge and skills. Effective teaching and learning is useful and reference to pedagogy is made which gives relevance to this task. Purnell and Harrison recognise that inquiry is a simple form of questioning and that it often includes exploration, observation and experimental play in the primary years. Guided inquiry is a productive and open approach to learning and has greater direction and knowledge development than that of Discovery Learning.  They then explain that “inquiry is a two-edged sword for the curriculum designer and the teacher” (2011, p. 35) and then list common features that all inquiry topics share. The backward map design and process is considered important in this paper and can be seen to be cyclic and use rich questioning where reflection and evaluation are important aspects to the processes involved in inquiry. As Guided Inquiry is steeped in questioning and is cyclic this will be a useful article to me.

Rusche, S. N., & Jason, K. (2011). “You have to absorb yourself in it”: Using inquiry and reflection to promote student learning and self-knowledge. Teaching Sociology, 39(4), 338-353. Retrieved from

This article is a reflection of the critical thinking skills used that were inspired through inquiry-guided learning. Rusche and Jason describe inquiry and reflection exercises that enable students to develop deeper learning that leads to “critical self- knowledge.” This learning process includes; questioning, investigating, interpretation and guidance. Below is a table that I think is valuable to my ILA. It is explaining how we can ask more questions but importantly good questions lead to more questions. Recognition of strong questions, skills and being able to identify and collect appropriate data will be important in my ILA making this a relevant source.

Shannon, D. (2002). Kuhlthau’s information search process. School Library Media Activites Monthly, 19(2), 19-23. Retrieved from

This is an interview about the ISP process and the way it goes beyond that of the traditional library information services and how the inclusion of a constructivist approach to learning was ignited by research conducted by Dewey (1944), Bruner (1973) and Kelly (1963). Kelly believed that feelings influence the construction or development of learning. The six ISP stages, intervention zones and mediation levels are described and this contrasts with the newer research being conducted today. This is relevant as I analyse the information seeking behaviours of both myself and my students. This resource seems relevant and will be considered for this task. However, questions about the interviewer’s credibility have been raised based upon my lack of knowledge of the publication.

Sheerman, Alinda. (2011). Accepting the challenge : evidence based practice at Broughton Anglican College. [online]. Scan; v.30 n.2 p.24-33; May 2011. Availability: <;dn=189075;res=AEIPT&gt; ISSN: 0726-4127. [cited 28 Aug 13].

This article presents the explicit learning gains that were experienced after the implementation of a collaborative project that used guided inquiry as the framework. Recognition is made to the vital role a Teacher Librarian (TL) plays in this action research cycle. This report specifies the goals that the TL had and similarly what goals the class teacher shared.  Interestingly they include investigation, guided inquiry, Web 2.0 technology, engagement and collaboration. The use of ISP to investigate and the SLIM questionnaire is again a similarly to my work in this unit. Therefore this article will be useful. Thought-provoking was the use of the peer review from where the terms Praise, Question and Polish were used and this is something I particularly liked and may consider using.

Stephenson, N. (2013, August 13.) Introduction to Inquiry Based Learning [Web log post]. Retrieved from

This is a blog about Inquiry Based Learning where Neil Stephenson discusses the power of the inquiry-based approach. He suggests that inquiry is part of play and has a constructivist approach yet doesn’t use that title to describe this style of learning. This author has a current email link on his blog that is linked to a current Twitter account making him an accurate source. This is a very helpful article as it discusses the eight elements of strong inquiry-based practice as modified from the Galileo inquiry rubric.

Wolf, Stephen J. (05/2008). “Learning Environment, Attitudes and Achievement among Middle-school Science Students Using Inquiry-based Laboratory Activities”. Research in science education (Australasian Science Education Research Association) , 38 (3), p. 321.

This was initially an unavailable source when I first started using Google Scholar. However, after linking to the QUT library I was able to access this via Informit. This is a comparison of inquiry versus non inquiry classes. Importantly this article compares two cohorts in an extensive qualitative data collection and considers gender, classroom environments and student outcomes. The researched fields include; student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation, cooperation, equity, attitudes towards the class and achievement. The key words located in this article were middle school and inquiry. This gives clear descriptive guidelines that are similar to the stages of the Information Search Process and will be interesting to compare in more detail. This article is one of only a few that discusses gender and may be of use in my assignment task.


7 thoughts on “Annotated Bibliography

  1. Michelle it appears that you have found some really useful sources during your information seeking process. Some of the sources you have chosen are the same as the ones I have used. I too found these invaluable for my ILA.

    I like how you have chosen sources that provide practical examples or guidance in the inquiry learning approach. Rusche & Jason’s (2011) article “You have to absorb yourself in it” is a great example of this.

    I was also excited to see that you were able to locate sources that discussed Kuhlthau’s theories that weren’t from her. I think these articles will back up her theories nicely with possible challenges or differing views. I would assume these will assist you in gaining a broader understanding about inquiry learning.

    The way you have structured your annotations of each source is great. You have provided a brief insight into the literature, key components as well as how the source can assist you in your ILA. This provides the viewer of your blog a simple but sufficient insight into each source. It has been hard to limit annotations to 2-4 sentences and I can see that you have tried hard to do this. Sometimes you simply need to put more in for the viewer to get the necessary information.

    Here are a few suggestions on grammar that you might find useful. As mentioned in my other feedback, they are suggestions and it is entirely up to you if you wish to make changes.
    -1st para, 2nd sentence: comma after process.
    -1st para, 3rd sentence: You could break this into 2 sentences. Maybe after ‘others’ put a full stop, eliminate the ‘and’ and a capital for during.
    -1st para, last sentence: You could break this into 2 sentences. Maybe a full stop after Activity.

    Overall I think you have done a great job on writing your annotated bibliography. If it was anything like mine, then it was a challenge. I look forward to reading more on your inquiry learning journey. Keep up the great work!

  2. Michelle, your annotated bibliography successfully meets the requirements of this part of the assignment, and makes for interesting reading. The individual review of each resource provides a thorough but succinct analysis of the information and your response to each, and I appreciate the way you have outlined the credibility of the information as well as its usefulness.

    I noticed your inclusion of the table from the Rusche resource, and found this a great way to illustrate and clearly present your key findings. A picture speaks a thousand words!

    As Mandy has stated that the response to each resource need only be 2-4 sentences long, with this in mind I wanted to recommend editing the review of the Green article which might be considered lengthy. If you wanted to reduce the response to this, you could easily cut out the first two sentences and maintain integrity in your response. Also as an aside, the headings for each resource seem to use bold lettering inconsistently, and from a style point, this may be better if all the sections contained in these were all bold, or not bold. Very minor!

    I have enjoyed the experience of reading your posts, and appreciate your interpretation of the requirements. It both validates my own response to the assignment and broadens the literature I have on this subject, as all your sources appear to be both interesting and valid.

    Many thanks for sharing.

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